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* Section 1 *

This is what the Old World
had to offer to the "New World":
  Sections of the "American Holocaust" :
Intro ~  [ 1 ] ~ 2 ~ 3 ~
4 ~ 5 ~ 6 ~ 7 ~ 8

This is what "Old World" had to offer
to the supposedly benighted "savage infidels"
of the "New World" :

" The Spain that (the former trafficker in African slaves) Christopher Columbus and his crews left behind just before dawn on August 3, 1492, as they sailed forth from Palos and out into the Atlantic, was for most of its people a land of violence, squalor, treachery, and intolerance.  In this respect Spain was no different from the rest of Europe.
        Epidemic outbreaks of plague and smallpox, along with routine attacks of measles, influenza, diphtheria, typhus, typhoid fever, and more, frequently swept European cities and towns clean of 10 to 20 percent of their populations at a single stroke.  As late as the mid-seventeenth century more than 80,000 Londoners – one out of every six residents in the city – died from plague in a matter of months.  And again and again, as with its companion diseases, the pestilence they called the Black Death returned.  Like most of the other urban Centers in Europe, says one historian who has specialized in the subject, 'every twenty-five or thirty years – sometimes more frequently – the city was convulsed by a great epidemic.'  Indeed, for centuries an individual's life chances in Europe's pesthouse cities were so poor that the natural populations of the towns were in perpetual decline that was offset only by immigration from the countryside-in – migration, says one historian, that was 'vital if [the cities] were to be preserved from extinction.'
        Famine, too, was common.  What J. H. Elliott has said of sixteenth century Spain had held true throughout the Continent for generations beyond memory:  'The rich ate, and ate to excess, watched by a thousand hungry eyes as they consumed their gargantuan meals.  [This would include the upper-class clergy, i.e.  the Supreme Pontiff and 'princes of the Church'.]  The rest of the population starved.  This was in normal times.
{ American Holocaust, by David E. Stannard, p. 58 }

    The author of this "Columbusnohero" website is only offering these pages as a bird's eye view of the outstanding book "American Holocaust". Apart from a few editorial comments of mine, most of the content are the words of the author, David E. Stannard, and a few other writers, I hope that the reading of these carefully chosen excerpts will persuade many to learn the whole truth about the European "discovery" of America - which is totally different from most have been taught- by doing some very instructive reading of such works.

"The slightest fluctuation in food prices could cause the sudden deaths of additional tens of thousands who lived on the margins of perpetual hunger.  In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries prices fluctuated constantly. . .    The result of this, as one French historian has observed, was that 'the epidemic that raged in Paris in 1482 fits the classic pattern: famine in the countryside, flight of the poor to the city in search of help, then outbreak of disease in the city following upon the malnutrition.'  And in Spain the threat of famine in the countryside was especially omnipresent.  Areas such as Castile and Andalusia were wracked with harvest failures that brought on mass death repeatedly during the fifteenth century.'  But since both causes of death, disease and famine, were so common throughout Europe, the recorders of many surviving records did not bother (or were unable) to make distinctions between them.  Consequently, even today historians find it difficult or impossible to distinguish between those of the citizenry who died of disease and those who merely starved to death.'  Roadside ditches, filled with stagnant water, served as public latrines in the cities of the fifteenth century, and they would continue to do so for centuries to follow.  So too would other noxious habits and public health hazards of the time persist on into the future – from the practice of leaving the decomposing offal of butchered animals to fester in the streets, to London's 'special problem,' as historian Lawrence Stone puts it, of 'poor's holes.'  These were 'large, deep, open pits in which were laid the bodies of the poor, side by side, row upon row.  Only when the pit was filled with bodies was it finally covered over with earth.'  As one contemporary, quoted by Stone, delicately observed: 'How noisome the stench is that arises from these holes so stowed with dead bodies, especially in sultry seasons and after rain.'  Along with the stench and repulsive appearance of the openly displayed dead, human and animal alike, a modern visitor to a European city in this era would be repelled by the appearance and the vile aromas given off by the living as well.  Most people never bathed, not once in an entire lifetime.  Almost everyone had his or her brush with smallpox and other deforming diseases that left survivors partially blinded, pock-marked, or crippled, while it was the norm for men and women to have 'bad breath from the rotting teeth and constant stomach disorders which can be documented from many sources, while suppurating ulcers, eczema, scabs, running sores and other nauseating skin diseases were extremely common and often lasted for years."
{ American Holocaust, by David E. Stannard, p. 59 }
        Street crime in most cities lurked around every corner.  One especially popular technique for robbing someone was to drop a heavy rock or chunk of masonry on his head from an upper-story window and then to rifle the body for jewelry and money.  This was a time when,. . .  as Johan Huizinga once put it, 'the continuous disruption of town and country by every kind of dangerous rabble [and] the permanent threat of harsh and unreliable law enforcement . . .  nourished a feeling of universal uncertainty.'  With neither culturally developed systems of social obligation and restraint in place, nor effective police forces in their stead, the cities of Europe during the fifteen and sixteenth centuries were little more than chaotic population agglomerates with entire sections serving as the residential turf of thieves and brigands, and where the wealthy were forced to hire torch-bearing body guards to accompany them out at night.  In times of famine, cities and towns became the setting for food riots.  And the largest riot of all of course – though the word hardly does it justice – was the Peasants' War which broke out in 1524 following a series of local revolts that had been occurring repeatedly since the previous century.  The Peasants' War killed over 100,000 people. . .
        What Lawrence Stone has said about the typical English village also was likely true throughout Europe at this time – that is, that because of the dismal social conditions and prevailing social values, it 'was a place filled with malice and hatred, its only unifying bond being the occasional episode of mass hysteria, which temporarily bound together the majority in order to harry and persecute the local witch.'  Indeed, as in England, there were towns on the Continent where as many as a third of the population were accused of witchcraft and where ten out of every hundred people were executed for it in a single year.
{ American Holocaust, by David E. Stannard, p. 60 }
        In Genoa, writes historian Fernand (sic) Braudel, 'the homeless poor sold themselves as galley slaves every winter.'  They were fortunate to have that option.  In more northern climes, during winter months, the indigent simply froze to death.  The summer, on the other hand, was when the plague made its cyclical visitations.  That is why, in summer months, the wealthy left the cities to the poor: as Braudel points out elsewhere, Rome along with other towns 'was a graveyard of fever' during times of warmer weather.
        Throughout Europe, about half the children born during this time died before reaching the age of ten.  Among the poorer classes – and in Spain particularly, which had an infant mortality rate almost 40 percent higher even than England's – things were much worse.  In addition to exposure, disease, and malnutrition, one of the causes for such a high infant mortality rate (close to three out of ten babies in Spain did not live to see their first birthdays) was abandonment.  Thousands upon thousands of children who could not be cared for were simply left to die on dungheaps or in roadside ditches.  Others were sold into slavery."
{ American Holocaust, by David E. Stannard, pp. 57-61 }

  Sections of the "American Holocaust" :
Intro ~  [ 1 ] ~ 2 ~ 3 ~
4 ~ 5 ~ 6 ~ 7 ~ 8
For contact info, etc.,   go to
the bottom of  Section 8