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Just one of a series of pages on
The R. C. pope and bishops are fond of accusing others of "moral relativism", by which they mean that instead of being governed by an "absolute truth" that is the same everywhere and for all time, i.e. the morality that the Roman Catholic supposedly possesses and tries to persuade everybody else to embrace, people are free to set moral standards according to their own time and place. But what good is an institution which preaches against moral relativism while practicing absolute immorality?
In this webpage you will see how the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church in Spain and at the "Holy See" completely ignored their own church's very clear teaching about the moral laws which should govern warfare, in order to promote totally immoral warfare because of the benefits it expected their church to derive from that warfare, regardless of the consequences for everyone else. The tragic example of what happened in Spain is far from unitque. At the end of this page, I will provide links to other web pages I have published to show the same pattern of moral depravity played out in Croatia, Italy, and Germany.
If you haven't read that great Ernest Hemmingway novel, you may not be familiar with the Spanish Civil War, as relatively few of us alive now were adults during the 1930's. Whether you are an American or a Spaniard, however, and whether you are a Roman Catholic or not, you may be able to live in ignorance of the power the Roman Catholic Church has over you, over your media and your public servants, but you can't escape that power. We believe that it would be tragic to allow the role played by the Roman Catholic in Spain's so–called "civil war" of the 1930's to be ignored or forgotten.
People everywhere who love freedom, liberty and democracy need to know how serious a threat to those values the Roman Catholic hierarchy can be, because the leaders of that church not just in the Vatican, but in countries like the U.S. has proven that they have tremendous power over the supposedly secular mass media and over the public servants of such countries, all the way up to their top leaders. Much of the web page you are reading comes either from a web site called "population-security.org/22-CH14.html, or from the book, "God and the Fascists, The Vatican Alliance with Mussolini, Franco, Hitler, and Pavelic", by a German Catholic named Karlheinz Deschner. Although this very important book has been available to German readers since it was first published in their country in 1965, it was only published in English in 2013.
In order to better illustrate the important issues I've raised above, I've taken the liberty to reorganize and edit the quotations below that I've taken from those sources.
It is remarkable that the poor of Spain didn't rebel against the super wealthy aristocracy and their equally wealthy Roman Catholic hierarchy until over a century later in1931. Also remarkable is how much more peaceable the Spanish rebellion was. Maybe that was because of all of the other revolutions that had taken place in the previous hundred and fourty years in other Catholic countries, including the mother of all Catholic countries Italy itself.
(In the early 1900's)"The people (of Spain) were increasingly turning to the liberal, socialist, and radical socialist parties, and finally the military dictatorship of General Primo de Rivera, approved by King Alfonso XIII, collapsed in 1923. At the municipal elections on April 12, 1931, a massive majority voted the monarchy out and declared the republic.
At the parliamentary elections in June 1931 – "undoubtedly the freest and most proper in Spanish history" – the coalition of bourgeois republicans and socialists won 377 seats while the right-wing parties, represented by the high clergy, the grandees, the officers' corps, and the upper classes, won only 60 seats. On December 9, 1931, the new constitution was accepted by the constituent Cortes. The role of the head of cabinet was assumed by the former Augustinian pupil from the college of the El Escorial monastery, Manuel Azana y Diaz, an author and an avowed enemy of the church, who remained prime minister in 1933 and also presided over the Spanish Republic during the civil war.
The new government had some enormous difficulties to overcome. It was sabotaged by the extreme Left and the Right, and it could not afford to make itself unpopular at any price if it was to continue to exist in order to achieve anything of significance, which meant that it continuously lost authority, especially on account of its concessions. On top of this, the country was on the verge of bankruptcy as a consequence of the prevailing conditions and the general economic crisis. Despite this, 7,000 schools were built under Minister of Education Marcelino Domingo in the first year of the republic alone and 2,500 in the second year. By the end of 1932, there were already seventy thousand pupils attending high school, up from twenty thousand." A very modern divorce law was passed, as well as new criminal law and laws about civil marriage, forced labor, arbitration committees, minimum wages, and rights for women, and other legal improvements. "Reforms that had required more than half a century elsewhere had been pushed through in two years."' The new constitution, which guaranteed freedom of speech and freedom of the press, declared all citizens equal and abolished titles of nobility, envisaged the separation of church and state. It withdrew education and care from the clergy, dissolved the Jesuit order, banned monks and nuns from trading, and secularized marriage. But the government, despite the rigorous anticlerical clauses in the constitution, was by no means anti-religious or even intent on turning Spain into an anti-Christian country. It allowed the church to spread its teachings everywhere and guaranteed freedom of faith and conscience." [ pp. 56 & 57 ]
(Over the years) "There had been four insurrections since 1835, (during which) the Spanish people, the poor workers and poor peasants, burned church buildings because they blamed the hierarchy for having persistently backed the upper class."
"In 1931, Spain became the Republic of Spain, a liberal democracy that separated church and state, ended state monetary support for the church and adopted the principles of Freedom of Conscience, Freedom of Religion, and Freedom of the Press. (This was a government far more like the U.S.A. than the U.S.S.R. but – like many ultra–conservative entities before and since, – Rome viewed any and everything to its left as "Communism".) The Vatican feared for the Church's very survival in Spain. The latest uprising against the Catholic Church took place throughout the country in July, 1936. One historian described it as 'the work of masses of common people, a spontaneous uprising.' The Vatican feared that the liberal democracy with its freedoms would spell the end of the Church in Spain." [ Seldes Lies Not Meant For Light. The Churchman January 1979. p. 10]
"The Spanish War of 1936 – 39 is often called a "civil war". But a more accurate description would be a "reactionary war", one in which the results of a prior revolution, in which despots from whom the people had won their freedom in an earlier revolution, longed for the good old days when they had absolute domination over those people, waged a "counter-revolution" to get those same powers back.
"This was a lie from the beginning. It was not a civil war but an invasion by Hitler, Mussolini and Salazar Fascists or what Seldes refers to as the Fascist Internationale in league with the Vatican. Mussolini landed 200,000 infantrymen from his Black Arrow division in Franco-held seaports and Hitler sent Goering’s Condor Legion to bomb civilians, involving an estimated 50,000 German aviators. All this had been envisioned in Rome in 1934. Seldes writes, “Mussolini and two representatives of the plan…met there and even promised help in overthrowing the Republic and establishing a Fascist type of government. They also met with Hitler that same year—and the confessions of the Nazis at the Nuremberg Trials confirm the plot.” There was to be an uprising of treasonous Republic officers led by Franco, the invasion by the Italian and German forces and the promulgation of the lie that this was an uprising against a Communist take-over of the Republic and a “Christian crusade against atheistic Communism.” The creation of this great lie would be primarily the responsibility of the Vatican." [Seldes, " Lies Not Meant For Light". The Churchman January 1979. p. 10."]
"In reality, communism played no dominant role in Spain, least of all before the civil war, when Largo Caballero and his socialists bourgeoned powerfully. The manifesto of the People's Front was anything but Marxist: of the 473 members of parliament, there were only fifteen communists,' who were furthermore split into two small rival groups who opposed each other vigorously: they were the Moscow-influenced, Stalinist Partido Comunista Espanola and the more Trotsky-inRuenced Partido Obrero de Unification Marxista. The republican cabinet had only one communist minister,'" and the Communist Party of Spain had only ten thousand members.
Even when their membership increased rapidly to five hundred thousand during the civil war, the Spanish Republic, with a population of twenty-five million, was still not a communist state. "This government is neither communist," the minister of justice at the time, Manuel Irujo (who was, by the way, a Basque and a very good Catholic"'), said to his Catholic interviewer Prince Friedrich of Loewenstein, "nor does this state have a communist structure. And as for me: you know I am no 'Marxist' or 'Red.' But I am a Christian, and I therefore believe that there can be no Christianity without social justice.[God and the Fascists, p. 68]
"The Spanish War of 1936 – 1939 was unspeakably brutal. All told, an estimated 500,000 to 1,000,000 of Spain's population of 25,000,000 were killed. By 1939, an estimated 100,000 prisoners of war had been murdered by the Fascists. ". . . the official organ of the Roman Church in France, La Croix, was the first to report that Franco killed every Loyalist Republican prisoner – a tremendously important news story. That, incidentally, was also suppressed in almost the entire U.S. press."
These Spaniards were murdered for only one reason – they believed in liberal democracy, just as we Americans do here in this country. (Actually, nothing is that simple, least of all a war involving violently conflicting religious, philosophical and sociological views and interests. Another reason for the brutality of this war is that Hitler viewed this war as an excellent opportunity to try out the monstrous war machinery his country had developed, and his brand new air force in particular, which he, along with Mussolini, used to bomb all kinds of targets "just for the fun of it", including many civilian targets of no particular military significance other than sheer terrorism – as was duly noted by Picasso's most famous painting, Guernica.)" [Seldes ]
In sharp contrast to the truth, the following are examples of what the Catholic clergy of Spain proclaimed at the time:
Seldes documents the leading role of the Vatican in the destruction of the Spanish Republic. The murder of 100,000 liberal democrat prisoners by Franco was undoubtedly made easier by Pope Pius XI. Referring to the uprising against the Roman Church throughout Spain in July, 1936, Pius XI attacked the "ruinization, destruction, villainies, barbarities by the savage forces whom it is impossible to dignify with the words human beings." Dehumanization always makes mass murder seem less reprehensible.
"Pius XII declared publicly year after year his support for Franco. He sent Franco the Supreme Equestrian Order of the Militia of Our Lord Jesus Christ.
As is often the case, this reactionary war would not have succeeded were it not for the intervention of foreign powers, in this instance, that of fellow Fascists Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini, or what Seldes refers to as the 'Fascist Internationale' in league with the Vatican.
"Mussolini landed 200,000 infantrymen from his Black Arrow division in Franco–held seaports and Hitler sent Goering's Condor Legion to bomb civilians, involving an estimated 50,000 German aviators. All this had been envisioned in Rome in 1934. Seldes writes, 'Mussolini and two representatives of the plan . . . met there and even promised help in overthrowing the (liberal) Republic and establishing a Fascist type of government. They also met with Hitler that same year – and the confessions of the Nazis at the Nuremberg Trials confirm the plot.' There was to be an uprising of treasonous Republic officers led by Franco, the invasion by the Italian and German forces, and the promulgation of the lie that this was an uprising against a Communist take–over of the Republic and a 'Christian crusade against atheistic Communism.' The creation of this great lie would be primarily the responsibility of the Vatican."
According to this N.Y. Time review of "www.nytimes.com/2012/05/13/books/review/the-spanish-holocaust-by-paul-preston.html", an important book about this war, "In quashing democracy and timid agricultural reform, and in restoring the traditional hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church, the army, big landowners and an authoritarian state, the Spanish version of Fascism was very much a fundamentalist movement." (Roman Catholic style)
"Cardinal Pacelli, then papal secretary, began this campaign of falsification in America when he came to Hyde Park [F D R's New York estate] to enlist the aid of President Franklin Roosevelt in this undertaking. Pacelli, who three years later was to become Pope Pius XII, was successful. Roman Catholic layman James Farley, a boss of the Democratic party, Cardinal Spellman, and Joseph P. Kennedy, FDR's ambassador to London, promoted Pacelli's position. Each warned Roosevelt he would lose the Catholic vote (about 1/4th of the electorate) unless he embargoed arms to Spain and joined (British Prime Minister) Chamberlain's so–called Neutrality Pact." ( which meant giving Hitler and Mussolini - who were flaunting that same pact - free reign in Spain.)
[Seldes, " Lies Not Meant For Light". The Churchman January 1979. p. 10."]
(This was a period when Britain and the U.S. were worried about the threat that Hitler and Mussolini were becoming in Europe, when the Jews of Europe didn't know what was to become of them, but all that the Vatican seemed to be worried about was putting out the fires of both"Communism" and "liberalism". )
"The making of the 'Christian crusade against Communism' myth began immediately following Pacelli's visit to America. 'The New York Times, October 1, 1936, was informed from Rome that Pacelli had `left for the United States of America to enlist the support of President Roosevelt and the U.S. Government for the anti–Communist campaign the Pope has been waging for some time. The Holy See regards the spread of Communist doctrine as the gravest and most threatening danger hanging over the world.' When the cardinal arrived in New York The New York Times headline read: `Pacelli Reported Seeking Aid in U.S. in Anti–Red Drive . . .'
A myth was born :
In Spain the day before, Seldes later discovered, 'The [Spanish hierarchy's] pastoral letter `Los dos Cindados' of September 13, 1936 had converted a treasonable officer's (reactionary) rebellion into the `Crusade Against Godless Communism.' "
"Immediately following this meeting, Hitler's newspapers reported FDR had made important concessions to the Cardinal and that Pacelli `is declared to have delivered the Catholic vote in the United States to Roosevelt.' Although this appeared at first to be a typical Nazi piece of propaganda, it seems to have been substantiated by important visits to Hyde Park in 1936 by Farley and Cardinal Spellman. In every Catholic country in Europe, (some) Cardinals, priests and diocesan publications had openly declared themselves to be against Franco, but not one in America did so."
The Neutrality Act was instrumental in the demise of Republican (i.e. democratic) Spain. President Roosevelt prevented guns, food and medicine from being shipped to the Republic. Everyone understood this. 'Roosevelt was re–elected in 1936, and again in 1940. The Non–Intervention Pact, originated by pro–Fascists in the British Foreign Office, remained in effect; the world press either falsified the news of the arrival of German and Italian troops, or confused enough people to prevent effective protest.' "
"When in 1938, a last effort was made to lift the embargo on arms, The Nation (magazine) said: `The Catholics got busy and reached the President, who was fishing in southern waters. Big church dignitaries came to Washington and talked cold politics. . .' The Nation report, written by Max Lerner, columnist for The New York Post, continues: `only a band of heroes could have withstood the combined effort of Catholic votes, State Department leaning and authority, administrative pressure, and mental sluggishness, and the Senate Committee [considering this legislation] was not heroic . . . the biggest factor in the mind of the President was the Catholic vote. . . . It is a cold political fact that Mr. Roosevelt, who has braved concentrated wealth, has not braved the risk of losing the Catholic vote.' The repeal move in Congress failed, and the last hope for the Spanish Republic disappeared." This blockade was responsible for the Republic's defeat.
It was not only President Roosevelt who felt the intense Catholic pressure. When Spain's Congress opened in 1938, 'a resolution was introduced in the American Congress to send greetings. Only 60 members had the courage to sign; 440 were either on the Fascist side or too cowardly to declare their convictions. The 60 who signed were attacked in the Roman pulpit, the Roman Catholic press, and by the Cardinals as `anti – American' and as `Reds'. Cardinal Spellman and his colleagues, whose offices were referred to among newspapermen (but never by newspapers) as `the power house', sent orders to the lobbyists to get retractions from the 60 under threat of defeat in the next elections. Many recanted.' A few half–recanted, saying their greetings did not mean endorsement. Among them: Harry Byrd of Virginia and Claude Pepper of Florida. Three Senators affirmed their endorsement of the Spanish Republic. Among them: Senator Hubert Humphrey.
Seldes goes on, 'The Vatican lobby continued its work in Washington for many years after the Republic's demise, seeking quick recognition of the Fascist regime, loans, admission to the United Nations.' "
The accuracy of this report on the role of the Vatican in the Fascist takeover of Spain is irrefutable. Why? Because Spain's Bishops themselves openly admitted the role of the Church. Seldes writes, 'The myth of a Christian crusade against Communism in Spain persisted for decades, despite honest revisionist historians. It was not until 1971 that the myth was finally destroyed by none other than the Roman Catholic hierarchy of Spain. This important correction of history was slurred in the world press and is probably not known to more than one person in a million today'.
"In Madrid, September 15, 1971, Primate Cardinal Enrique Taracon presided at a Congress of the entire Roman Catholic Hierarchy, with 94 bishops and 151 priests present. . . . Although a two–thirds' vote was necessary to pass resolutions, and this one did not pass, it is significant that it received a large majority of the vote. . . . The majority confessed it had sinned in supporting the wrong side (the Fascist side) in Spain and asked to be forgiven. `We humbly recognize,' said the resolution, `and ask pardon for it, that we failed at the proper time to be ministers of reconciliation in the midst of our people divided by a war between brothers.'" "In 1971 – and again in 1972, 1983 and succeeding years – a majority of Spain's 94 bishops and 151 priests attending voted 60% or more for the Church's apology but never officially passed it." By taking this action, Cardinal Taracon probably prevented widespread killing of priests and nuns upon Franco's death in 1975.
The news of these votes was almost completely suppressed in the world press. Only three minor reports on this story appeared in the United States.
Why would the Vatican propagate Fascism? "The first Fascist newspaper, Arriba España, was published August 1, 1936. One of its directors was a priest representing the Church . . . on September 16 Arriba España said editorially that `Catholicism will find Fascism its best collaborator'."
And what were the Church's rewards? " Franco repaid the Roman Catholic Church by abolishing divorce, making religious marriages obligatory and restoring taxes for the benefit of the Church – all previously banned by the Republic."
When, in 1939, Franco had succeeded in overthrowing the short-lived liberal democratic República Española, "The newly ordained (crowned) Pope Pius XII congratulated the victorious dictator Franco with enthusiasm. (proclaiming) "By lifting our hearts to God we together with your Excellency give thanks for the much desired victory of Catholic Spain. We hope that this precious land, now that peace has finally been attained, will return to the old Catholic traditions that made it so great. We grant your Excellency and the entire noble Spanish people our apostolic blessing."
[ http://www.todayinhistory.de/index.php?what=thmanu &manu_id=1562&tag=27&monat=8&year=2018&dayisset=1&lang=en ]
Just as the Pope had celebrated Franco after his victory in his unjust war in Spain, six years later, Franco sang the praises of his fellow Fascist Catholic dictator, when he learned of Adolf Hitler's death:
"Adolf Hitler, son of the Catholic Church, died while defending Christianity. It is therefore understandable that words cannot be found to lament his death, when so many were found to exalt his life. Over his mortal remains stands his victorious moral figure. With the palm of the martyr, God gives Hitler the laurels of Victory". - Spanish dictator Francisco Franco, (Knight of the Order of Christ) published on the 3rd of May 1945, the day of Hitler's death. (published in "Reforme", July 21, 1945.)
As promised here are the links to several other web pages I have published regarding several other outrageous examples of leading Roman Catholic prelates and "the Holy See" itself engaging in monstruous "moral relativism" :
Most important, Franco turned the schools over to the Catholic Church. Seldes offers ". . . two short abstracts from nationally used catechisms taught to two generations of children, in the hope of producing a brain–washed people which would never rebel." "In the second year of the war the Archbishop of Grenada gave his imprimatur to the catechism of the Jesuit priest Angel Maria de Arcos. This catechism was so unbelievable, so obscurantist, incredible, outrageous, that when John Langdon–Davies wrote about it in a London liberal magazine he was attacked by numerous Catholic editors, accused of making the whole thing up. He sued for libel, established the veracity of the catechism, and won his case. Here is what the children in many eastern cities, including Granada, were taught:
In 1944 the new classic catechism, known as the Nuevo Repaldi, and used nationally, was published and introduced into every secondary school in Spain. It consists of 2 pages, and was fully described by the U.S. press attaché in Madrid during the Spanish War, Emmet John Hughes, in his Report from Spain. Of the ten pages which concern themselves with the essential doctrines of Catholic faith and morals, here are a few samples:
As was pointed out above, the Catholic hierarchy of Spain eventually confessed that it had backed the wrong side in this terrible war. So too did the political leadership of the United States, as we show below. In sharp contrast to them is the refusal by the leadership of the Catholic Church in both Rome and in the United States. Read on.
"FDR admitted his error in 1939 – but it could not be published in his lifetime. He said to his Ambassador to Madrid, Claude Bowers, who had told the truth about the great world campaign of falsehood against Spain and had urged American help: `We have made a mistake, you have been right all along. . . .' He wrote this confession in 1954. Secretary of State Sumner Welles in his book Time for Decision, 1944, wrote: `of all our blind isolationist policies the most disastrous was our attitude on the Spanish Civil War.' President Harry Truman wrote in his Memoirs: `I believe it was a mistake for me to support the Neutrality Action in the first place.'"
On the other hand, "The spokesman (sic) for the American Catholic Hierarchy, who so powerfully influenced American foreign policy – Farley, Kennedy, Cardinals Hayes, Spellman and Dougherty" and the archbishops and priests and Catholic laymen who so intensely lobbied in Congress, did not join their Spanish brothers and never admitted error. Their vital roles and that of the Vatican are unquestionable in the crushing of this liberal democracy.
The Spanish War of 1936-1939 was unspeakably brutal. All told, an estimated 500,000 to 1,000,000 of Spain's population of 25,000,000 were killed. By 1939, an estimated 100,000 prisoners of war had been murdered by the fascists. ". . . the official organ of the Roman Church in France, La Croix, was the first to report that Franco killed every Loyalist Republican prisoner – a tremendously important news story. That, incidentally, was also suppressed in almost the entire U.S. press." These Spaniards were murdered for only one reason – they believed in liberal democracy, just as we Americans do here in this country.
Who deserves to be believed in all of this ? ( the clergy who promoted lies, the media who cooperated with such clergy, or journalists like George Seldes?
From 1940 to 1950, George Seldes edited the nation's first periodical of media criticism called In Fact – which won him a George Polk Award in 1982.
"As a press critic, George Seldes picked up where Upton Sinclair left off. From the 1930s onward, Seldes led the way for new generations of journalists eager to search for truth wherever it might lead.... I.F. Stone aptly called Seldes `the dean and granddaddy of us investigative reporters.'" Seldes was clearly one of the giants of U.S. journalism.
While Paul Blanshard's intensive study of the press (at that time) focused on what the Catholic hierarchy said and did regarding freedom of the press, Seldes observed and reported on the actual outcomes of the hierarchy's influence over American newspapers. Very few Americans outside the journalism field appreciate the intensive influence exercised by the hierarchy over the American press at least since the adoption of the principle of papal infallibility in 1870. This influence has greatly hampered the truthful and complete reporting on all matters of concern to the Vatican. . . Seldes reported on numerous examples of this influence. I will present here only one example -- the Spanish Civil War -- carefully documented by Seldes to show that the Catholic hierarchy's wielding of enormous influence in the press. " (all of it nefarious)
These excerpts are from his book, Lords of the Press:
"It was then twenty–seven years since I had started in journalism, by which time I had learned the first lesson, namely, that one must never write on controversial subjects, the first of which was religion, and that one must never report even the truth in any case in which the Catholic hierarchy might be offended."
Seldes quotes Heywood Broun, "And still more precarious is the position of the New York newspaper man who ventures any criticism of the Catholic Church. There is not a single New York editor who does not live in mortal terror of the power of this group."
Seldes continues: "Probably the bravest thing the News has done has been its editorial defiance of the pressure of the Catholic Church...."
"To criticize the Catholic Church is to invite a boycott, the withdrawal of advertising, loss in circulation and in revenue."
"...almost every newspaper in the world is scared to death when any religious sect is mentioned critically."
The hierarchy has a history of manipulating the press to insure that Papal interests are served even at the expense of American interests. . .
After decades of intense study, in an August 1978 article, Seldes concludes: "The New York Times is still in fear of reprisals from the Roman Church in America, as it was during the entire Spanish War when under managing editor Edward L. James and the notorious `Fascist phalanx in the bull–pen.' James's four, incidentally Roman Catholic, editor assistants, bowed to the `power house on Madison Avenue,' Cardinal Spellman's residence, and a certain Father Thorning, and published scores of falsifications from Spain."
Seldes provides strong evidence to support this conclusion. For example, he cites The New Republic magazine: "The New Republic, to its credit, in `Who Lied About Spain?' when the war was over in 1939 listed the [New York] Times' man with Franco as the number one falsifier." In a November 1981 article, Seldes concluded that all of America's 1,750 daily papers were similarly terrified by "the Catholic Church propaganda campaign." This "terror" that Seldes describes is still pervasive and has led to the disappearance of a free press in America in matters of concern to the Vatican.
There's a more recent book that may be of interest (but which I have not read) :
Hitler and Spain: The Nazi Role in the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939, by Robert H. Whealey, a teacher at Ohio University (pub. 1989)
IMHO, the only way to understand the R.C.church’s role in the Nazi Holocaust is to view the situation much like Pius the 12th did. As the leader of a world-wide empire, Pope Pius 12’s greatest concern was the threat posed by communism and it’s most powerful promoter, after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, i.e. the Soviet Union, not just to the Vatican itself, but to all of the parts of the Roman Catholic Empire, especially in Europe.
That is why I really appreciate the way Karlheinz Deschner devoted so much attention to the scandalous behavior of Popes Pius the 11th and 12th, not just in Germany in the 1940s, but in Italy, Spain, and Croatia beginning in the 1930s. The table of contents below shows the parts of Deschner’s book, God and the Fascists, where he covers many of the same topics that I cover in this page.